老子 Literal meaning: ‘old’ + ‘Master’ or ‘child’. It is the given name of the author the foundational text of Taoism, Dàodé Jīng, estimated to have been written in at least 400BCE, and thus the founder of Taoism. Commentary: Scholars have debated whether Lǎozǐ was indeed a historical figure at all, because there is virtually…… Continue reading Lǎozǐ

理 Literal meaning: generally, the term refers to ‘principle’, more specifically it refers to an ‘organic pattern’. Commentary: The ideogram refers to the natural grain in material such as jade and wood, but more broadly it means the kind of beauty that is seen in the natural rhythm in a free-flowing brushstroke. The ‘free’ techniques adopted…… Continue reading


列子 Literal meaning: ‘Master Lie’ Liè, or Lie Yukou, is the name of Taoist sage and author as well as the title of the classical Chinese text of his contribution to Taoist thought, estimated to have been compiled around 400CE. Commentary: Lièzǐ also referred to as ‘The Writings of Master Liè’ is a classical Chinese text of eight…… Continue reading Lièzǐ