Gurmukhi Language from Sikh Dharma

‘With my palms pressed together, I offer this prayer.’ ~ Guru Arjan Dev Ji

In addition to the classical Kundalini Tantra teachings originating from the classical Hindu text Lalita Sahasrama, Integral Yoga of the Dharma Ananda tradition is influenced enormously by the modern teachings of Kundalini Yoga by Yogi Bhajan, also known as Sikh Dharma.

Therefore, an Integral Yoga teacher and student learns a number of philosophical concepts, prayers, mantras and other meditations throughout their training and personal practice. Although reading the Gurmukhi script is certainly not a prerequisite, comprehension and being able to recite many of the concepts and practices through the reading of the transliterations in the Roman alphabet is helpful. 

A Very Brief History of Sikhism

Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ) is a monotheistic religion that evolved in times of religious persecution. It originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 1500CE. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions and the world’s fifth largest organised religion, as well as being the world’s ninth largest overall religion. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the Sikh sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder’s life. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539) and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.

Punjabi Language in the Gurmukhi Script 

Punjabi  is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Punjabi is written in one of three scripts (Shahmukhi, Gurmuhki or Devangari). Shahmukhi is used mainly by  Punjabi Muslims, Gurmukhi by Punjabi Sikhs and Devanagari by Punjabi Hindus. Gurmukhi is used in the state of Punjab as the official script of the Punjabi language.

Sikhism daily prayers and scriptures are read in the Gurmukhi language and script. All practising Sikhs, regardless of origin, are thus required to learn Gurmukhi for this reason. The Gurmukhi script is identical to the Punjabi alphabet. Books offer invaluable guides to pronunciation and character recognition. This is vital for learning how to read the phonetic Gurmukhi script used in Sikh scripture and daily prayers. Gurmukhi was developed, modified, standardised and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552).

The primary scripture of Sikhism, Guru Granth Sahib is written in Gurmukhi, in various dialects often subsumed under the generic title Sant Bhasha, also known as the ‘saint language’. Modern Gurmukhi has thirty-five original letters plus six additional consonants, nine vowel diacritic marks/accents, two diacritic marks/accents for nasal sounds, one diacritic mark/accent that geminates  (lengthens) consonants and three subscript characters (joined consonant sounds). An excellent highly recommended beginner’s book to the Gurmukhi script (including prayers and mantra meditations) and the modern practice of Kundalini Yoga is Original Light: The Morning Sadhana of Kundalini Yoga by Snatam Kaur. Alternatively, there are online dictionaries such as Learn Punjabi that provide translations into the Shahmukhi and Gurmuhki scripts as well as English.

Scripture, Daily Prayer and Mantra 

The sacred texts of Sikhism open with Ik Onkar, its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasises simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Naam Japo (repeat God’s name) as a means to feel God’s presence. It teaches Sikhs to transform the mental afflictions that hinder spiritual growth, these are known as “The Five Thieves”. Secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life. Guru Nanak taught that living an active, creative, and practical life of truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity is above the metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man is one who establishes union with God, knows his own will, and carries out that will. Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms to be mutually coexistent.

The Principal Scripture 
Guru Granth Sahib is the foundational text of Sikhism, it contains:

Japji Sahib
Ānand Sahib
Asa di Var
Kirtan Sohila
Sukhmani Sahib

Other Scriptures 
Dasam Granth
Sarbloh Granth
Varan Bhai Gurdas

Daily Prayers, Psalms and Recitation

The practice of recital of Gurbani is known as Nitnem. The Gurbani means psalm, hymn or prayer. The Gurbani that are read before Amritvela are sometimes also referred to as “The Five Bani”. These are as follows:

Japji Sahib
Jaap Sahib
Tav-Prasad Savaiye
Chaupai Sahib
Anand Sahib

The Gurbani that are retired in the evening around sunset is RehrasArdās is also recited afterwards in the evening.

The Gurbani read before going to bed is Kirtan Sohila.


Ik Onkar
Mul Mantra
Sat Naam

The Ten Gurus of Sikhism

Guru Nanak
Guru Angad
Guru Amar Das
Guru Ram Das
Guru Arjan
Guru Hargobind
Guru Har Rai
Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji
Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Central Beliefs of Sikhism

The Two Practices of Sikhism


The Three Pillars of Sikhism

Kirat Karo
Naam Japo
Vand Chako

The Five Thieves of Sikhism


The Five Virtues of Sikhism


The Five Realms

Dharam Khand
Gian Khand
Karam Khand
Sach Khand
Saram Khand

Other Central Concepts in the Daily Life Philosophy and Practice of Sikhism


Chardi Kala



By Dr. Gabriella F. Buttarazzi (Uma Shakti Devi)

| Founder and Director of Education of ' The Art of Integral Being' | Teacher Trainer on the '500-hour Integral Yogic Studies' Teacher Training Programme |

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